How It Works

Location

The procedure used to calculate your Carbon Footprint complies with the Guidelines (2006) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes (IPCC), for National Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventories. As far as possible, India-specific GHG emissions coefficients are used in the calculations. In instances where India-specific coefficients are not established by the Indian research community, default global values provided in the IPCC Guidelines have been used.

Each activity and lifestyle choice impacts Carbon Footprint in many ways simultaneously. These impacts can be classified in a 3-tier hierarchy comprising of primary (resulting from direct activity or consumption), secondary (arising from the production of a product/service at another location), and tertiary (arising from the production of input materials and services in the production of a product/service).

Each of these aspects has a progressively diminishing impact (in most cases) on personal Carbon Footprint. The following table presents a summary of the current level of analysis pursued in the creation of the no2co2 'Simple' Calculator. As our research capabilities and resources expand, the analysis will be taken in the direction of assessing the tertiary impact in all cases which is reflect in the following table.

Footprint Type Primary Analysis Secondary Analysis Tertiary Analysis
Electricity Consumption YES YES  
Cooking Fuel Footprint YES    
Milk Footprint YES YES*  
Meat Footprint YES YES*  
Rice Footprint YES YES*  
Autorickshaw Footprint YES    
Taxi / AC Taxi Footprint YES    
Bus / AC Bus Footprint YES    
Local Train Footprint YES YES*  
Long Distance Train Footprint YES YES*  
Private Vehicle Footprint YES
Domestic Air Travel Footprint YES
International Air Travel Footprint YES

* Partial Secondary Analysis Conducted

The eventual goal is a rigorous Life Cycle Analysis (a 'cradle-to-grave' accounting) of every product or service used by Indian citizens.


Energy

Electricity Footprint

A weighted-average tariff structure (based on units of power sold per year to customers) was developed for each city from the individual tariff structures of electricity suppliers operating in that city. This is used to back-calculate the units of electricity consumed per month by your household from your monthly-bill amount. By multiplying this with the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of electricity generated in the specific State/Union Territory of India, the monthly emission from electricity consumption by your household is calculated. This number is divided by the number of people in your household to determine your personal electricity related Footprint.


Cooking Fuel Footprint

LPG Cylinder

The number of days taken to consume an LPG cylinder is converted to kilograms of LPG used per year. Multiplying this with the GHG emissions per kilogram of LPG burned provides the annual Footprint resulting from LPG fuel use for the entire household. This number is divided by the number of people in your household to determine your personal LPG fuel related Footprint.

Piped Natural Gas (PNG)

A weighted-average tariff structure (based on cubic meter sold per year to customers) was developed for each city from the individual tariff structures of PNG suppliers operating in that city. This is used to back-calculate the cubic meters of PNG consumed per month by your household from your monthly-bill amount. By multiplying this with the GHG emissions per cubic meter of natural gas, monthly emissions from PNG consumption by the household are calculated. This number is divided by the number of people in your household to determine your personal PNG related Footprint.


Diet

Milk Footprint

Weekly milk consumption is converted to yearly milk consumption. Using the appropriate coefficient for methane emissions for one litre of milk produced in the particular State/Union Territory of your residence, the annual milk related Footprint for the entire household is calculated. This number is divided by the number of people in your household to determine your personal milk related Footprint.

Meat Footprint

Weekly meat consumption (in meals) is converted to kilograms of meat consumption per year based on average meat consumption per meal data (obtained from household sampling). Using the appropriate GHG emission coefficient for one kg of meat production (a complex coefficient developed from an extensive review of current research on GHG emissions from livestock farming activities in India and annual animal slaughter and meat yield per animal data) of the specific meat type, your annual meat related Footprint is calculated.

Rice Footprint

Weekly rice consumption (in meals) is converted to kilograms of meat consumption per year based on average rice consumption per meal data (obtained from household sampling). Using the appropriate GHG emission coefficient for one kg of rice production, the annual meat related Footprint is calculated.


Travel

City Travel Footprint

Auto-rickshaw Footprint

Tariff card information for the respective city is used to back-calculate the kilometers travelled based on the monthly travelling expense. Multiplying this with the GHG emission coefficient for one km of 3-wheeler travel in India yields the monthly Footprint from auto rickshaw travel. This is then converted to an annual Footprint.

Taxi / AC taxi Footprint

Tariff card information for the respective city is used to back-calculate the kilometers travelled based on the monthly travelling expense. Multiplying this with the GHG emission coefficient for one km of average 4-wheeler travel in India yields the monthly Footprint from taxi travel. This is then converted to an annual Footprint.

Bus / AC Bus Footprint

Tariff card information for the respective city is used to back-calculate the kilometers travelled based on monthly travelling expense. Average fuel economy data for diesel and CNG buses is used to calculate a GHG emission coefficient for one km of average bus travel (using India-specific GHG emissions coefficients for diesel and CNG fuels). Accounting for the average bus capacity of urban transport fleets in India as well as average unused passenger capacity, the GHG emission coefficient is multiplied by annual kilometers travelled to yield the annual Footprint from bus travel.

Local Train Travel

Average trip duration and number of trips per week are converted to total hours travelled by local train per year. Using average all-India local train speed data, this is converted to kilometers travelled per year. Utilizing a coefficient for units of electricity consumed by suburban train operations of Indian Railways per passenger per kilometer (calculated from review of Annual Operation Reports of Indian Railways), this number is converted to units of local train travel-related electricity used per year. Multiplying this by the average GHG emission coefficient for electricity generation in India yields the annual Footprint related to local train travel.

Charter Bus/School Bus Travel

Average trip duration and number of trips per week are converted to total hours travelled by charter/school bus per year. Utilizing a coefficient for average GHG emissions per hour for diesel and CNG buses (obtained from research studies conducted by The Energy Research Institute, National Laboratory of Physics etc.), and accounting for average bus capacity and passenger use factor, the annual emissions from Charter Bus/School travel is calculated.

Private Vehicle Footprint

Fuel expense

Using current automotive fuel prices in the user's city of residence, average monthly expense on fuel is converted to litres of fuel purchased per month. Multiplying this by the India-specific GHG emissions coefficient for automotive fuels yields the annual Footprint related to vehicular travel. Dividing this by the average vehicle occupancy yields the personal vehicular travel Footprint.

Travel time

Average daily travel time is converted to total hours travelled by 2-wheeler and/or 4-wheeler per year. Utilizing coefficients for GHG emissions per hour for an average India diesel and petrol 4-wheeler as well as 2-stroke and 4-stroke Indian two-wheeler (obtained from research studies conducted by The Energy Research Institute, National Laboratory of Physics etc.), the annual emissions from vehicular travel are calculated. Dividing this by the average vehicle occupancy yields the personal vehicular travel Footprint.

Long Distance Travel Footprint

International Air Travel

Cruise-mode fuel consumption for various flight distances and Landing-Take-Off (LTO) cycle GHG emissions data for the following international aircraft: Boeing 747-200, Boeing 747-400, Boeing 777-200, Boeing 777-300, Airbus A330-200 and A300-300 (obtained from IPCC 2006 guidelines) are used to calculate average GHG emissions of an international fleet aircraft as a function of distance flown. Average aircraft speeds for the above aircrafts, in addition to passenger capacity and international passenger load factor data, are used to calculate GHG emissions per passenger per hour for short, medium, and long haul flights (as defined in the Calculator). Average hours flown annually under each category are multiplied with the GHG emissions per hour to obtain a carbon Footprint for each flight type. The sum total of these yield the annual international air travel related Footprint.

Domestic Air Travel

Cruise-mode fuel consumption for various flight distances and Landing-Take-Off (LTO) cycle GHG emissions data for the all types of aircrafts operated by domestic airlines in India (obtained from IPCC 2006 guidelines) are used to calculate a weighted average (based on the percent share of each aircraft in the total Indian fleet) GHG emissions of a domestic fleet aircraft as a function of distance flown. Average aircraft speeds for the above aircrafts, in addition to passenger capacity and domestic passenger load factor data, are used to calculate GHG emissions per passenger per hour for short, medium, and long haul flights (as defined in the Calculator). Average hours flown annually under each category are multiplied with the GHG emissions per hour to obtain a carbon Footprint for each flight type. The sum total of these yields the annual domestic air travel related Footprint.

Train Travel

Average number of trips per year for each category - short, medium and long, as defined in the Calculator - are converted to total hours travelled by train per year. Using average all-India local train speed data, this is converted to kilometers travelled per year. Utilizing a coefficient for litres of diesel consumed by broad-gauge train operations of Indian Railways per passenger per kilometer (calculated from review of Annual Operation Reports of Indian Railways) and multiplying it by the India-specific GHG emission coefficient for diesel fuel in India provides the GHG emissions per passenger per kilometer of diesel train travel in India. A similar coefficient is calculated for non-suburban electric train services of the Indian Railways. A weighted average of GHG emissions per passenger per kilometer for an average train is calculated and is multiplied by the number of kilometers travelled annually to calculate the annual Footprint related to long-distance train travel on the Indian Railways.

Bus Travel

Average number of trips per year for each category - short, medium and long, as defined in the Calculator - are converted to total hours travelled by bus per year. Using an assumed highway speed of 55 kmph, this is converted to kilometers travelled per year. Fuel economy data for intercity Volvo buses are used as representative values and converted to GHG emissions per kilometer per bus using India-specific GHG emissions coefficients for diesel. Accounting for average bus capacity of Volvo buses and assuming a reasonable passenger load factor, GHG emissions per passenger per kilometer is calculated and multiplied with the annual kilometers travelled to calculate the annual Footprint related to long-distance bus travel in India.